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Study References

-Delphinol® (Maqui Berry)

Alvarado, JL et al. Delphinidin-Rich Maqui Berry Extract (Delphinol®) Lowers Fasting and Postprandial Glycemia and Insulinemia in Prediabetic Individuals during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests. Biomed Res Int. 2016. <>

Alvarado, J. et al. Delphinol® standardized maqui berry extract significantly lowers blood glucose and improves blood lipid profile in prediabetic individuals in three-month clinical trial. Panminerva Med. 2016 Sep. <>

Watson,RR  etal. Neutraceutical and antioxidant effects of a delphinidin- rich maqui berry extract (Delphinol a review MINERVA CARDIOANGIOL 2015;63(Suppl. 1 to No. 2):1-12

Hidalgo,J etal. Delphinol® standardized maqui berry extract reduces postprandial blood glucose increase in individuals with impaired glucose regulation by novel mechanism of sodium glucose cotransporter inhibition PANMINERVA MED 2014;56(Suppl. 3 to No. 2):1-7

Davinelli,S etal. A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of an Anthocyanin–Maqui Berry Extract (Delphinol) on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers   Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 34, No. S1, 28–33 (2015) American College of Nutrition

Reyes-Farias M,etal. Chilean native fruit extracts inhibit inflammation linked to the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages. J Med Food. 2015 May;18(5):601-8. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2014.0031. Epub 2014 Oct 10

Cespedes CL etal, The chilean superfruit black-berry Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae), Maqui as mediator in inflammation-associated disorders. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017 Oct;108(Pt B):438-450. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.12.036. Epub 2016 Dec 28.



Al-Romaiyan etal. A Novel Gymnema sylvestre Extract Stimulates Insulin Secretion from Human Islets in Vivo and In Vitro PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, vol 24, no. 9, pp. 1370 - 1376. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3125 

Al-Romaiyan etal. A Novel Extract of Gynema sylvestre Improves Glucose Tolerance In Vivo and Stimulates Insulin Secretion and Synthesis In Vitro   PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, vol 27, no. 7, pp. 1006-1011. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.4815

Al-Romaiyan etal. Investigation of intracellular signaling cascades mediating stimulatory effect ofa Gymnema sylvestre extract on insulin secretion from isolated mouse and human islets of Langerhans.Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012 Dec;14(12):1104-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2012.01660.x. Epub 2012 Aug 

Kumar,P etal,  Methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre augments glucose uptake and ameliorates Insulin resistance by upregulating GLUT-4, PPAR-γ, adiponectin and leptin levels in vitro j Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2016; 5(2): 146-15

Tiwari,P etal Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Gymnema sylvestre: An Important Medicinal Plant

Wang Y etal. Gymnemic acids inhibit sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jun 25;62(25):5925-31. doi: 10.1021/jf501766u. Epub 2014 Jun 10.

Persaud SJ1, Gymnema sylvestre stimulates insulin release in vitro by increased membrane permeability. J Endocrinol. 1999 Nov;163(2):207-12.

Chen G1,2Guo M1,3. Rapid Screening for α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Gymnema sylvestre by Affinity Ultrafiltration-HPLC-MS. Front Pharmacol. 2017 Apr 27;8:228. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00228. eCollection 2017.

Katie J.Astell et al. Plant extracts with appetite suppressing properties for body weight control: A systematic review of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials Complementary Therapies in Medicine Volume 21, Issue 4, August 2013, Pages 407-416

Harry GPreuss et al. Efficacy of a novel, natural extract of (–)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX, niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract in weight management in human volunteers: a pilot study

Pothuraju R et al. A systematic review of Gymnema sylvestre in obesity and diabetes management. J Sci Food Agric. 2014 Mar 30;94(5):834-40. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6458. Epub 2013 Nov 19

Parijat Kanetkar et al. Gymnema sylvestre: A Memoir J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007 Sep; 41(2): 77–81.



Sreejayan N, Marone PA, Lau FC, Yasmin T, Bagchi M, Bagchi D. Safety and toxicological evaluation of a novel chromium(III) dinicocysteinate complex. Toxicol Mech Meth. 2010;20:321-333.

Jain, SK et al. Chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation can lower blood glucose, CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1, creatinine, apparently mediated by elevated blood vitamin C and adiponectin and inhibition of NFkappaB, Akt, and Glut-2 in livers of zucker diabetic fatty rats. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Sep. <>

Saiyed ZM1Lugo JP2. Impact of chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation on inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic subjects: an exploratory analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Food Nutr Res. 2016 Sep 28;60:31762. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v60.31762. eCollection 2016

Dou,M Combined chromium and magnesium decreases insulin resistance more effectively than either aloneAsia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec;25(4):747-753. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.48

Bai J1,2Xun P1Morris S3Jacobs DR Jr4Liu K5He K1. Chromium exposure and incidence of metabolic syndrome among American young adults over a 23-year follow-up: the CARDIA Trace Element Study. Sci Rep. 2015 Oct 22;5:15606. doi: 10.1038/srep15606

HoffmanNJ, Chromium enhances insulin responsiveness via AMPK. J Nutr Biochem. 2014 May;25(5):565-72. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.01.007. Epub 2014 Feb 20

Brownley, KA A double-blind, randomized pilot trial of chromium picolinate for binge eating disorder: results of the Binge Eating and Chromium (BEACh) study. J Psychosom Res. 2013 Jul;75(1):36-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2013.03.092. Epub 2013 Apr 22.

Anton SD Effects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satiety. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008 Oct;10(5):405-12. doi: 10.1089/dia.2007.0292.

Docherty JP et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory trial of chromium picolinate in atypical depression: effect on carbohydrate craving. J Psychiatr Pract. 2005 Sep;11(5):302-14.



Marie-Claude Roy Effect of a commercially-available algal phlorotannins extract on digestive enzymes and carbohydrate absorption in vivo Food Research International Volume 44, Issue 9, November 2011, Pages 3026-3029

Paradis ME et al. A randomised crossover placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) on postchallenge plasma glucose and insulin levels in men and women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011 Dec. <>

Gabbia D  et al. The Phytocomplex from Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum Controls Postprandial Plasma Glucose Levels: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study in a Mouse Model of NASH. Mar Drugs. 2017 Feb 15;15(2). pii: E41. doi: 10.3390/md15020041.

Kyung -Tae Kim Alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibition is differentially modulated by fucoidan obtained from Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum Phytochemistry Volume 98, February 2014, Pages 27-33

Sinead Lordan et al. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of Irish seaweed extracts Food Chemistry Volume 141, Issue 3, 1 December 2013, Pages 2170-2176

Xindi Shan et al. In vitro and in vivo hypoglycemic effects of brown algal fucoidans   International Journal of Biological Macromolecules Volume 82, January 2016, Pages 249-255

Pantidos,N et al. Phenolic-rich extracts from the edible seaweed, ascophyllum nodosum, inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase: Potential anti-hyperglycemic effects Journal of Functional Foods Volume 10, September 2014, Pages 201-209

Seung-Hong Lee et al. Anti-diabetic effects of brown algae derived phlorotannins, marine polyphenols through diverse mechanisms Fitoterapia Volume 86, April 2013, Pages 129-136



Fouad M. F. Elshaghabee et al. Bacillus As Potential Probiotics: Status, Concerns, and Future Perspectives

Yuting Ruan, Effect of Probiotics on Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials

Kim YA et al. Probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics and insulin sensitivity. Nutr Res Rev. 2017 Oct 17:1-17. doi: 10.1017/S095442241700018X.


Beserra BT et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prebiotics and synbiotics effects on glycaemia, insulin concentrations and lipid parameters in adult patients with overweight or obesity. Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct;34(5):845-58. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2014.10.004. Epub 2014 Oct 20.


Magnesium Citrate

Simental-Mendía LE A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effects of magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and glucose control

 Huerta MG et al. Magnesium deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in obese children. Diabetes Care. 2005 May. <

He K, et al. Magnesium intake and incidence of metabolic syndrome among young adults. Circulation. 2006. <

De Souza MC et al. A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2000 Mar. <>

Jennifer Beatriz Silva Morais et al. Effect of magnesium supplementation on insulin resistance in humans: A systematic review   Nutrition, Volume 38, June 2017, Pages 54-60

Abbasi B et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Res Med Sci. 2012 Dec;17(12):1161-9.

Sanjuliani AF, et al. Effects of magnesium on blood pressure and intracellular ion levels of Brazilian hypertensive patients. Int J Cardiol. 1996 Oct 11


Zinc Oxide

Capdor J et al. Zinc and glycemic control: a meta-analysis of randomised placebo controlled supplementation trials in humans. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2013 Apr;27(2):137-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2012.08.001. Epub 2012 Nov 6

Cruz KJ et al. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Insulin Resistance in Obese Subjects: a Systematic Review. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017 Apr

Maret, W. Zinc in Pancreatic Islet Biology, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diabetes. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2017 Mar. <

Yuntang Wu  et al. Zinc stimulates glucose consumption by modulating the insulin signaling pathway in L6 myotubes: essential roles of Akt–GLUT4, GSK3β and mTOR–S6K1

The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry Volume 34, August 2016, Pages 126-135

LipingHuang Chapter Fourteen - Zinc and Its Transporters, Pancreatic β-Cells, and Insulin Metabolism , Vitamins and Hormones Volume 95, 2014, Pages 365-390


Rhodiola Rosea

Anghelescu IG1Edwards D2Seifritz E3Kasper S4. Stress management and the role of Rhodiola rosea: a review. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2018 Jan 11:1-11. doi: 10.1080/13651501.2017.1417442

Robert A. Rizza et al. Cortisol-Induced Insulin Resistance in Man: Impaired Suppression of Glucose Production and Stimulation of Glucose Utilization due to a Postreceptor Defect of Insulin Action. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 54, Issue 1, 1 January 1982, Pages 131–138. <

Mao, JJ. et al. Rhodiola rosea versus sertraline for major depressive disorder: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 2015 Mar 15.

Amsterdam JD1Panossian AG2. Rhodiola rosea L. as a putative botanical antidepressant Phytomedicine. 2016 Jun 15;23(7):770-83. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2016.02.009

Panossian, A. et al. The adaptogens rhodiola and schizandra modify the response to immobilization stress in rabbits by suppressing the increase of phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinase, nitric oxide and cortisol. Drug Target Insights. 2007. <

Hung SK1Perry RErnst E. The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Phytomedicine. 2011 Feb 15;18(4):235-44. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.08.014. Epub 2010 Oct 30.

Panossian A1Wikman GSarris J. Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Phytomedicine. 2010 Jun;17(7):481-93. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.02.002. Epub 2010 Apr 7.

Li HB1Ge YKZheng XXZhang L. Salidroside stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Jul 7;588(2-3):165-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.04.036. Epub 2008 Apr 20.

Zheng Tet al. Salidroside ameliorates insulin resistance through activation of a mitochondria-associated AMPK/PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. Br J Pharmacol. 2015 Jul;172(13):3284-301. doi: 10.1111/bph.13120. Epub 2015 Apr 24.



Nobre, AC et al. L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008. <

Lu, K. et al. The acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004 Oct. <

Yoto, A. et al. Effects of L-theanine or caffeine intake on changes in blood pressure under physical and psychological stresses. J Physiol Anthropol. 2012 Oct 29. <

Kimura K1Ozeki MJuneja LROhira H. L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses Biol Psychol. 2007 Jan;74(1):39-45. Epub 2006 Aug 22.

Kakuda T1 Neuroprotective effects of theanine and its preventive effects on cognitive dysfunction. Pharmacol Res. 2011 Aug;64(2):162-8. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2011.03.010. Epub 2011 Apr 6.